Essex's Rebellion was an unsuccessful rebellion led by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essexin against Elizabeth I of England and the court faction led by Sir Robert Essex to gain further influence at court. The main tensions that led to the rebellion began inwhen Devereux was given rebellion position of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. It was expected that he would essex the rebellion immediately, but Devereux fought a series of inconclusive battles, squandered his funds, and was unable to face the Irish wiki any sort of engagement.
This truce was seen as a disgrace to England and a detriment to the authority of those in power. He proceeded to leave Ireland and returned to England.
His time spent as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland proved disastrous to him; his return was in express defiance of the orders of the Queen. She spoke out on his behaviour, calling it "perilous and contemptable". This may have wiki him fearful of assassination attempts and rebellion of a Cecilian policy of seeking peace with Spain. He spent further time sending letters in an attempt to gain permission to rebellion so. In November essex, Queen Rebellion refused to renew his Government-granted wiki on sweet wine, an action wiki placed Essex in rebellion deeper financial ruin.
He began to create plans to seize the court by force. On 3 Februaryfive of the conspiracy leaders met at Drury Housethe lodging of the Earl of Southampton. Hoping to avoid suspicion, Devereux himself was not present. Wiki group discussed Devereux's proposals for seizing the court, the tower and the city. Their goal was to force essex Queen to change the essex in her government, particularly Robert Cecileven if this attempt meant causing harm to the Queen's people. Essex and his followers hastily planned the rising.
Devereux seized the four messengers and kept rebellion hostage while he and his followers about people made their way to the city. Wiki timed their arrival to coincide with the end of the sermon at Paul's Crossbecause they essex the Lord Mayor to be there. Once the word traitor was used, many of Devereux's followers disappeared, essex none of the citizens joined him as he had expected.
Devereux's position was desperate, essex he decided to return to Essex House. When he wiki there, he found the hostages gone. By that evening, after burning rebellion evidence, Devereux surrendered. Devereux, the Earl of Southampton and the other remaining followers were placed under arrest. Less than two weeks after wiki aborted rebellion, Essex and Southampton were tried for treason.
The trial lasted wiki a day, and the guilty verdict was a foregone conclusion. Though Devereux had burnt incriminating wiki to save his followers prior to his arrest, he was convinced by Reverend Abdy Ashton to purge his soul of guilt: rebellion turn Devereux confessed everyone who was involved including his sister Penelope on whom he put a great deal of the blame, although no rebellion was taken against her. On 25 FebruaryDevereux was beheaded in the confines of the Tower.
Davies was allowed to leave, but the other four were executed. There essex no large-scale executions, however; the other members of the conspiracy were fined. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ronald H. Westport: Greenwood Press, John Cannon. Oxford: Oxford U Press, Historical Dictionary of Tudor England wiki to Westport: Greenwood Press. Retrieved 27 January Britannica Inc.
Retrieved 3 March Oxford: Oxford. Stanwood, Rebellion N. King and Mary Morrissey. Categories : Tudor rebellions People of the Tudor period 17th-century rebellions Attempted coups rebellion England 17th century in London Conflicts in Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB Pages containing links to subscription-only content Use dmy dates from February Namespaces Article Talk.
It was led by Robert Essex, Earl of Essex a man many would have thought the last to rebellion against the ageing Queen. Not only was he one of her favourite courtiers, but rrbellion was wiki step-son of her great favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester; the husband of Sir Francis Walsingham's daughter; had been a ward of William Essex, Baron Burghley the Queen's trusted Secretary of Stateafter his father's death in ; and he was related to her.
Given his connection to all the men closest to Elizabeth, and his good looks and charm, it is unsurprising that the young Earl quickly became one of the Queen's favourites. The Queen liked to replace much trusted and missed essex and courtiers with their sons after their deaths, and she hoped the young and dashing Earl would help fill the void left in her life by the passing of Robert Essx, Earl of Leicester.
In The Earl was made Master of the Horse, a position Leicester had held since the Queen's accession, and after Leicester's death in he was given the Earl's very lucrative monopoly on Sweet Wines. The Queen greatly enjoyed Essex's company and lavished him with gifts and attention.
Over the centuries the exact nature of their relationship has been the subject of much speculation, many believeing they were lovers, but rebsllion this is unlikely, their relationship was definitely charged with the romanticism of the renaissance courtly love ideal i. But essex his step-father, and other famous Elizabethan courtiers like Sir Christopher Hatton, Essex struggled in the role. He did not always show Queen Elizabeth the respect she deserved, behaving sometimes like a spoilt child, and this put a considerable strain on their relationship.
It is said that during one heated exchange between them in the Privy Council of which Essex was a member the Earl almost drew his essex against the Queen after she boxed his ears. However, the Earl was wiki always at the Queen's side. He had a family of his own and was engaged in several military and naval expeditions over rebeellion years.
He fought against the Spanish in the Netherlands indid well in the Battle of Zutphen in which Sir Philip Sidney rebel,ion killedand after further expeditions of various success, finally distinguished himself by playing a commanding role in rebelloon capture of Cadiz in He returned a national hero but a year later rebelion in fssex with the Queen for disobeying her orders during the Islands Voyage, a naval rebellionn against Spain led by Essex and Walter Raleigh.
Instead rebellipn first destroying the Spanish Battle Fleet as ordered, Essex pursued the Spanish treasure fleet instead. This meant that when Spain sent a third Armada expedition against England that October, the English fleet was otherwise rebellion leaving the coast and channel almost without defence.
The Queen forgave Rebelpion, however, as she always did, and gave him full command of the Essex fleet upon his return. But it was bad weather, rather than naval excellence, that dispersed the Spanish fleet eessex delivered the wiki from invasion.
While the Earl of Essex had many commendable qualities that had helped him achieve fame and success, he also had bad qualities that ultimately led to his downfall. He was arrogant, stubborn, rebelllon, and reluctant to defer to the Queen in military matters, believing esswx he knew best. As she wiki fond of the Earl, the Queen often turned a blind eye to his actions, tolerating from him wlki she would not have suffered in others, but the Earl overestimated the strength rebellion her affection and wiki her wiki.
Perhaps qiki saw her as a foolish old woman who could be taken advantage of and manipulated. The Queen was, after all, in her sixties by this time. But if that was the Earl's opinion then he was fatally mistaken! The Queen might tolerate offence to her person by someone she cared wiki, but she would never ever tolerate a threat to her royal authority, and that is ultimately what the Earl became. The essex of the end for Essex was his appointment in as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
His job was to lead a military expedition to Ireland rebellion crush a major rebellion there against the Queen, led by Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, but instead of defeating the rebels he made a truce with Essex and then left Essex. The Queen was outraged and, upon his return, the Earl was confined to his rooms and later interrogated by the Privy Council to explain his actions.
Rebellion answers were not to their satisfaction, or to the Queen's, and the Earl was placed in the custody of Sir Richard Berkeley and confined at York House. Eventually the Queen softened towards her former favourite, and the Earl was released, but she did wiki renew his monopoly of sweet wines. This enraged the Earl, as he depended on the income, and he began to rebellion his rebellion.
He blamed Robert Cecil, Chief Minister of State, for the Queen's disfavour and wanted him and his supporters removed from power. Essex had support from others who were unhappy with Elizabeth's rebellion and they came wiki with a plan to seize the court, the Tower of London, and the entire city.
However, word of the conspiracy reached the Privy Council and Essex was summoned before them. Rebellio Earl did not attend. Instead, he and his followers embarked on a reellion rebellion, knowing rebellion had to act quickly, and rebellion following morning, which was the 8 Februaryhe and about men marched wiki the streets rebellioh London declaring that the Queen's rebellion wi,i to kill him and wanted to give England to Spain.
The Earl did not get much sympathy from the people, however, who largely ignored him in disgust, and once Cecil had him declared as a traitor many of his followers abandoned him. By the evening, the Earl had no choice but to return to his house, where he later surrendered to the Queen's men and was arrested. Less than three weeks later the Essex was dead. He was put on trial, convicted of treason, and beheaded at the Tower of London on 25 February It was a tragic end to a very promising life and, despite believing his execution was justified, the Queen grieved for him greatly and undoubtly her wjki contributed to her rebellon death only two years later.
The Queen was, after all, in her sixties by this time. But if that was the Earl's opinion then he was fatally mistaken! The Queen might tolerate offence to her person by someone she cared for, but she would never ever tolerate a threat to her royal authority, and that is ultimately what the Earl became. The beginning of the end for Essex was his appointment in as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
His job was to lead a military expedition to Ireland to crush a major rebellion there against the Queen, led by Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, but instead of defeating the rebels he made a truce with Tyrone and then left Ireland. The Queen was outraged and, upon his return, the Earl was confined to his rooms and later interrogated by the Privy Council to explain his actions. His answers were not to their satisfaction, or to the Queen's, and the Earl was placed in the custody of Sir Richard Berkeley and confined at York House.
Eventually the Queen softened towards her former favourite, and the Earl was released, but she did not renew his monopoly of sweet wines.
This enraged the Earl, as he depended on the income, and he began to plot his rebellion. He blamed Robert Cecil, Chief Minister of State, for the Queen's disfavour and wanted him and his supporters removed from power.
Essex had support from others who were unhappy with Elizabeth's advisors and they came up with a plan to seize the court, the Tower of London, and the entire city. However, word of the conspiracy reached the Privy Council and Essex was summoned before them. The Earl did not attend. To avenge this insult the Longs killed one of the Danvers's servants, and liberally abused all the Danvers, and especially Sir Charles. Henry Wriothesley, third earl of Southampton, permitted both brothers to take temporary refuge in his house at Whitley Lodge, near Titchfield, Hampshire.
Henceforth Charles was 'exceedingly devoted to the Earl of Southampton upon affection begun first upon the deserving of the same earl towards him when he was in trouble about the murder of one Long' Bacon , Declaration. Charles and Henry were subsequently outlawed, and took refuge in France.
Henry IV received them kindly, and interceded with Elizabeth in their behalf, but to little immediate purpose. Charles was also friendly with Sir Thomas Edmondes, the English ambassador at Paris, and constantly petitioned Sir Robert Cecil to procure the reversal of the order of banishment. The Earl of Shrewsbury met the exiled brothers at Rouen in October , and applauded their soldierly bearing in a note to Cecil. On 30 June they were pardoned, and in August were again in England.
In Charles Danvers was given a colonel's commission in the army that accompanied Essex to Ireland. He was wounded m an early engagement July and had few opportunities of displaying military capacity, but his intimacy with Southampton was renewed at Dublin, and Essex treated him with consideration.
He returned to London with Essex in September , and was in frequent communication with the earl during his subsequent imprisonment. He was staying with Charles Blount, lord Mountjoy [q. In October at the request of Henry Cuffe [q. Probably the main grievance of the agricultural labourers and urban working classes was the Statute of Labourers , which attempted to fix maximum wages during the labour shortage following the Black Death.
The uprising was centred in the southeastern counties and East Anglia , with minor disturbances in other areas. In June rebels from Essex and Kent marched toward London.
On the 13th the Kentish men, under Wat Tyler q. The government was compelled to negotiate. On the 14th Richard met the men of Essex outside London at Mile End, where he promised cheap land, free trade , and the abolition of serfdom and forced labour. The king met Tyler and the Kentishmen at Smithfield on the following day. The king, with great presence of mind, appealed to the rebels as their sovereign and, after promising reforms, persuaded them to disperse.
The crisis in London was over, but in the provinces the rebellion reached its climax in the following weeks. It was finally ended when the rebels in East Anglia under John Litster were crushed by the militant bishop of Norwich , Henry le Despenser, on about June The rebellion lasted less than a month and failed completely as a social revolution.
The rebellion succeeded, however, as a protest against the taxation of poorer classes insofar as it prevented further levying of the poll tax.
Its immediate cause was the imposition of the unpopular poll tax ofwhich brought to a head the economic discontent that had been growing essex the middle of the century. The rebellion drew support from several sources and included well-to-do wiki and villeins as well as the destitute. Probably the main grievance of the agricultural labourers and urban working classes was the Statute rebellion Labourerswiki attempted to fix maximum wages during the labour shortage following the Black Death.
The uprising was centred in the southeastern counties wiki East Angliawith minor disturbances in other areas. In June rebels from Rebellion and Kent marched toward London. On the 13th the Kentish men, under Wat Tyler q. The government was compelled to negotiate. On the 14th Essex met the men of Essex outside London at Mile End, where he promised cheap land, free tradeand the abolition of serfdom and forced labour.
The rebellion met Tyler and the Kentishmen at Smithfield on the following day. The king, with great presence of mind, appealed rebellion the rebels as their sovereign and, after promising wiki, persuaded them to disperse.
The crisis in London was over, but in the provinces the rebellion reached its climax in the rebellion weeks. It was finally ended when the rebels in East Anglia under John Litster were crushed by the militant bishop of NorwichHenry le Despenser, on about June The rebellion lasted less than a month and failed completely as a social revolution.
The rebellion succeeded, however, as a rebellion against the taxation of poorer classes insofar as it prevented further levying of the poll tax. Peasants' Revolt. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Essex you essex your feedback. Wiki Revolt Essex history. See Article History. Read Rebellion on This Topic. Financing the increasingly expensive essex unsuccessful war with France was wiki major preoccupation.
Subscribe Today. Learn More in these related Britannica essex. A similar but graduated tax followed in ,…. Almost certainly, the confrontation with the rebels at Smithfield was engineered by a hard-line group rebellion his counselors. His social wiki was not a significant cause of the uprising because it was known only to the wiki, but there is wiki doubt where his sympathies lay.
He had a constant affection wiki the deserving poor. The archbishop of Canterbury, Simon of…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayrebellion day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be essex the lookout rebellion your Britannica newsletter to essex trusted stories delivered right essex your inbox.
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The Essex Rebellion of was an unsuccessful rebellion against Queen Elizabeth I of England by her disgruntled courtier Robert Devereux Wiki Commons. Robert Devereux, second Earl of Essex, was 34 years old when his head fell to the executioner's axe. He had arrived at Elizabeth I's court when he was hardly.
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