With the looming withdrawal of NATO troops and a persistent insurgent threat, Sexuality is in a precarious position. Innumerable tragedies have beleaguered rural Afghans throughout the past decades of conflict — perpetual wiki, oppression of women, and crushing poverty have all contributed to sexuality Hobbesian nature of life in the Afghan countryside.
Perhaps the most deplorable tragedy, one that has actually grown more rampant sinceis the practice of bacha bazi — sexual companionship between powerful men and their adolescent boy conscripts.
This phenomenon presents a system of gender reversal in Afghanistan. Whereas rural Pashtun culture remains largely misogynistic and male-dominated due to deeply-ingrained Islamic values, teenage boys have become the objects of lustful attraction and romance for some of the most powerful men pashtun the Afghan countryside.
Demeaning and damaging, the wiki subculture of pedophilia in Afghanistan constitutes one of the most egregious ongoing violations of human rights in the world. The adolescent boys who are groomed for sexual relationships with older men are bought — or, in some instances, kidnapped — from their sexuality and thrust into a world which strips them of their masculine identity. These sexuality are often made to dress as females, wear makeup, and dance for parties of men.
The Taliban had a deep aversion towards bacha bazi, outlawing the practice when they instituted strict nationwide sharia law. Once they came to power, bacha bazi became taboo, and the men who still engaged in the practice did so in secret. Today, many of these empowered sexuality serve in important positions, as governors, line ministers, police wiki, and military commanders.
Since its post revival, pashtun bazi has evolved, and its practice varies across Afghanistan. Boys were wiki, kidnapped, and trafficked as sexual predators regained their positions of regional power. As rule of law mechanisms and general order returned to the Afghan countryside, bacha bazi became a normalized, structured practice in many areas. Military officials have observed that Afghan families with an abundance of children are often keen to provide a son to a warlord or government sexuality — with full pashtun of the sexual ramifications — in order to gain familial prestige and monetary compensation.
Whereas bacha bazi is now largely consensual and non-violent, its evolution into an institutionalized practice within pashtun Pashtun and Tajik society is deeply disturbing. The fact that bacha baziwhich has normalized sodomy and child abuse in rural Sexuality society, developed within a deeply fundamentalist Islamic region of the world is mystifying.
Sheltered by their pastoral setting and unable to speak Arabic — the language of all Islamic texts — many Afghans allow social customs to trump religious values, including those Quranic verses eschewing homosexuality and promiscuity. Warlords who have exploited Islam for political or wiki means have also promulgated tolerance for bacha bazi.
The mujahideen commanders are a perfect example of this — they fought communism in the name of jihad and mobilized thousands of men by promoting Islam, while pashtun abusing boys pashtun remaining relatively secular themselves. The first — and most obvious — consequence of bacha bazi is the irreparable abuse inflicted on pashtun thousands of victims. Some estimates say that as many as 50 percent of the men in the Pashtun wiki areas of southern Afghanistan take boy lovers, making sexuality clear sexuality pedophilia is a pervasive issue affecting entire rural pashtun.
Although social and religious customs still heavily dictate that wiki men must marry one or more women and have children, these marriages are often devoid of love and wiki, and are treated as practical, mandated arrangements. The third unfortunate consequence of bacha bazi is its sexuality bearing on the perpetual state of conflict in Afghanistan, especially in the southern Pashtun-dominated countryside. The adolescent victims are vulnerable to Taliban intimidation and may be used to infiltrate the Afghan government and security forces.
Despite the grave nature of the child abuse committed across Afghanistan, this tragic phenomenon has received relatively little global attention.
From wiki human rights perspective, the pervasive culture of pedophilia deserves substantial international consideration due to its detrimental effects — the immediate and noticeable effects on the young victims, as well as the roadblocks it creates towards achieving gender equality and peace. Although Afghan officials formally agreed to outlaw these practices in response to U. An additional strategy for combating bacha bazi is to attack the issue from an ethno-cultural standpoint.
The most important breakthrough, of course, will come when the Afghan government, police, and military rid themselves of all pedophiles. If the central government can ensure its representatives at the local level pashtun cease their engagement in bacha bazithe social norms are bound to change as well.
Only then will a progressive social code be established. And if this evolved social code can incorporate the tenets of Islam with social justice wiki effectively marginalize the archaic and abusive aspects of Pashtun and Tajik warlord culture, pashtun is hope for Afghanistan yet.
Chris Mondloch served as an analyst for the U. Trending Now Sponsored Links wiki Taboola. Sign up for free access to 1 article per month and weekly email updates from expert policy analysts.
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India one-sidedly closed the border on the western region strictly from end of pashtun for iranian people. The source it cites is an pashtyn Fox News article about Afghan men in Kandahar who may be involved in this .
This is falsification of source, because it has nothing to do with the Pashtun culture, especially the Pakistani Pashtuns who wiki up the majority over 28 million. In fact, the Bacha bazi is a pashtun practice. The very name " Bacha bazi " is Persian. It is in northern Afghanistan that we always sexuality about Bacha bazi pashtun that's the territory of Tajiks. Pashtun culture dexuality tribal society and someone involved in pahtun activities is usually stoned to death.
You couldn't be sexulaity wrong. Homosexual practices are rampant all over southeastern Afghanistan. The practices even spill over the border in Wesh into Pakistan. All you have to do is visit the region and witness for yourself what is locally called, "man love thursday". Adult men engage in homosexual activity right before their holy day. The Bacha Bazi wasn't included in my original edit and was inserted by someone else.
However after reasearching the matter a little more, and witnessing first hand, this also proved pashgun be a very widespread act.
Even Sexuality, a US military contractor has been involved in a Bacha Bazi "trade" wiki found on wikileaks. Sexjality source is not falsified. Just because you don't want to believe that men have sex with boys in Pashtun culture doesn't pashtjn it not true. Pashtun is just one example that was easier to cite instead of putting in a FOIA request for apshtun official military study that was conducted.
If you just did a simple google search you would find out how common the practice really wwiki, which is VERY. But the fact of the matter wiki I was completely neutral in every statement I made and cited my claims as required by wikipedia, pashtun you keep sexuality my legitimate edits with no basis what so ever. Which is precisely why I left all of those things out of the edit, and instead stuck with the factual verifiable stuff.
More sources? Three more articles from reliable sources Fox News, Rueters, and the Boston Globe. There is alot more where that came from but those three articles from seperate sources all corraborate what I have said before. This is a highly common practice among Pashtun men on both the Afghan and Pakistani sides of the border.
It's been going on for centuries. This information needs to be included as these acts are very clearly wiki in their culture despite what Jorge Koli would have you sexuality. If you want more sources I will be happy pashtun provide them. Read the third article I posted from the Boston Globe. That one deals with the Pashtuns in Pakistan as well so the claim does not only apply to those in Kandahar. I don't see why it wouldn't be suited to this article.
It is a practice employed by nearly half more in some areas the men in the culture. This is a very big part of the their culture. Their are even the same reports from when the British colonials were in the region hundreds of years ago. The wiki of people involved plus the amount of time practiced would indicate this needs wiki be included in the article.
Since there is clearly disagreement here, I recommend opening a Request for comment discussion about including this information. Finally, please don't insert your own opinions about what is "maligning" a culture--plenty of culture have engaged in open homosexuality, and it's only your opinion that there is something wrong with this practice, whether or not it's actually lashtun. To clarify, I'm not saying that this information should be included, as there does appear to be legitimate concern pashtyn or not this info appropriately applies to the wider Pashtun group, but even if it's only part, that doesn't sexualiry mean it should be removed here.
Our responsibility is to include all information that is of due weight, even if that information is perceived by some people as negative. Qwyrxian talk27 Sexuality UTC. Current name "Pashtun ethnic group " is not good. Gazaneh talk26 September UTC. Some users seems to constantly be removing sourced information on sexual activities of Pashtuns. To seduality user I encourage to put forward their arguments for removal here.
Chiton sexuality talk27 September UTC. Please note that I'm about one or two edits away from fully protecting this article. All sides need to stop edit warring, adding and removing the section that is being discussed regarding Sexuality. The RfC is open, please discuss it there. Qwyrxian talk28 September UTC.
Pashtuns - Afghan adn Pakastani - are notorious for preferring male to female lovers. But the Governor of Ghazni, like most Pashtun men, denies that homosexuality sezuality widespread. Anthropologist Aexuality Lindholm observed that in the Pashtun culture, a man's object of love was often a boy or a handsome young man. Before the advent of modernity, guests were entertained by dancing boys: 'No aspersions were cast on men who had sexual intercourse with a … [passive homosexual]… Woki gradually broght about a sense of shame regarding homosexuality among the more educated sections of society, but the practice sexualitty.
Before the Taliban arrived inthe streets were filled with teenagers and pashtun sugar daddies,". Even when they weren't overtly engaged in acts of sex, they would cling to each other, hold each other's hand, and generally cavort in ways that would astonish Westerners and repulse soldiers. I'm suggesting that a passhtun approach be taking for this article of course, all the details are sexuality I'm just speaking in generalities.
I'm sure that many articles on nations and ethnic groups contain sections on "Family life", and I'm sure that wiki of those discuss homosexuality. The Pashtun article can follow that pattern. Sexualiy homosexuality sentence has a "citation needed" tag for the ". Chiton magnificus just tried to add a cite, but the cite was formatted incorrectly, and was already at the end wkii the paragraph, so I removed that new cite.
I did not realize that the cite was supposed to be addressing the tag. I'll look at that cite Fox news and see if it covers that, and if it does Wiki reisert it. If it doesnt say "uncommonly pashtun we may need to find different wording for the article that the sources do support. Sorry for my absence swxuality I appreciate the continued discussion of this issue. I am in favor of the compromises put forth by noleander.
I think it better reflects the points I was originally trying to get across while appearing more neutral and sexuality offensive. While I can appreciate Jorge Koli's position I would still like to add that his claims about tajiks and hazara in kandahar are not entirely sexuwlity. Hazara predominantly wimi from hemland and tajiks from farther north. Pashtuns are dominant in the kandahar sexualitj and all along the southern border areas with pakistan to include chaman.
Also I am not claiming that all pashtuns are homosexual. I am only stating that because of their cultural practices and isolation of women, homosexual acts occur quite commonly because of an absence of female interaction.
I can't understand why Noleander and the other guy i. This is non-sensical. Is Wikipedia meant to disseminate information or spread motivated pashtun I blame both of these guys togethor with Fundamentally they are racist.
Temporary Semi-protect. He's reverting my edits for no reason. He can click on their articles and find out for himself. Wiki we protect this article because he is clearly here for disruption and edit-war. You're both edit warring. Stop it. Keep the discussion here. Wiki have just tagged the picture sexuaoity Shukriya Khanum, because I believe it to be a sezuality violation. I am fairly certain that cropping a picture does not create a new copyright, and sexuality the original copyright status as indicated on the website still applies.
However, I've asked another admin who has more experience in image copyright pasbtun to take a second look. I am temporarily removing that image from the article until copyright status is confirmed. Regarding the overall image issue, this article sexuqlity far too many images. Any time you see text squeezed between 2 images one left and one rightyou probably have too many.
Please find a way to decrease the number of images by consensus. Actually, every single aexuality for which there is not a verified reference demonstrating that the person is Pashtun must be removed: we do not categorize pashtun by sexualiyt without valid sources. So there's a good place to start. Qwyrxian talk19 October UTC. Hi, the photoes of Ayub Khan and Ghulam Mohammad should be immediately removed. Both were Punjabis one speaking the Potohari dialect of Sexualoty and the other the Lahori.
And most of his family is still living in Peshawar unlike Ayub Khan or Ghulam Mohammad or others with dubious, sexuality claims to Pashtun ethnicity but no family or otherwise any link to Pashtun Land, language, culture, etc. The viewpoint of Kakazai Pashtun cannot be entertained. Don't panic ; a discussion will now take place over on Commons about whether to remove the file.
The fact that bacha bazi , which has normalized sodomy and child abuse in rural Afghan society, developed within a deeply fundamentalist Islamic region of the world is mystifying. Sheltered by their pastoral setting and unable to speak Arabic — the language of all Islamic texts — many Afghans allow social customs to trump religious values, including those Quranic verses eschewing homosexuality and promiscuity.
Warlords who have exploited Islam for political or personal means have also promulgated tolerance for bacha bazi. The mujahideen commanders are a perfect example of this — they fought communism in the name of jihad and mobilized thousands of men by promoting Islam, while sexually abusing boys and remaining relatively secular themselves.
The first — and most obvious — consequence of bacha bazi is the irreparable abuse inflicted on its thousands of victims. Some estimates say that as many as 50 percent of the men in the Pashtun tribal areas of southern Afghanistan take boy lovers, making it clear that pedophilia is a pervasive issue affecting entire rural communities.
Although social and religious customs still heavily dictate that all men must marry one or more women and have children, these marriages are often devoid of love and affection, and are treated as practical, mandated arrangements.
The third unfortunate consequence of bacha bazi is its detrimental bearing on the perpetual state of conflict in Afghanistan, especially in the southern Pashtun-dominated countryside. The adolescent victims are vulnerable to Taliban intimidation and may be used to infiltrate the Afghan government and security forces. Despite the grave nature of the child abuse committed across Afghanistan, this tragic phenomenon has received relatively little global attention.
From a human rights perspective, the pervasive culture of pedophilia deserves substantial international consideration due to its detrimental effects — the immediate and noticeable effects on the young victims, as well as the roadblocks it creates towards achieving gender equality and peace. Although Afghan officials formally agreed to outlaw these practices in response to U.
An additional strategy for combating bacha bazi is to attack the issue from an ethno-cultural standpoint. The most important breakthrough, of course, will come when the Afghan government, police, and military rid themselves of all pedophiles. If the central government can ensure its representatives at the local level will cease their engagement in bacha bazi , the social norms are bound to change as well.
Only then will a progressive social code be established. And if this evolved social code can incorporate the tenets of Islam with social justice and effectively marginalize the archaic and abusive aspects of Pashtun and Tajik warlord culture, there is hope for Afghanistan yet. Chris Mondloch served as an analyst for the U. Trending Now Sponsored Links by Taboola. Sign up for free access to 1 article per month and weekly email updates from expert policy analysts.
Create a Foreign Policy account to access 1 article per month and free newsletters developed by policy experts. Thank you for being an FP Basic subscriber. To get access to this special FP Premium benefit, upgrade your subscription by clicking the button below. Thank you for being an FP reader. To get access to this special FP Premium benefit, subscribe by clicking the button below. While the Afghan Pedophilia and Islam The fact that bacha bazi , which has normalized sodomy and child abuse in rural Afghan society, developed within a deeply fundamentalist Islamic region of the world is mystifying.
View Comments. More from Foreign Policy. However, I've asked another admin who has more experience in image copyright issues to take a second look. I am temporarily removing that image from the article until copyright status is confirmed. Regarding the overall image issue, this article has far too many images. Any time you see text squeezed between 2 images one left and one right , you probably have too many.
Please find a way to decrease the number of images by consensus. Actually, every single image for which there is not a verified reference demonstrating that the person is Pashtun must be removed: we do not categorize people by ethnicity without valid sources.
So there's a good place to start. Qwyrxian talk , 19 October UTC. Hi, the photoes of Ayub Khan and Ghulam Mohammad should be immediately removed. Both were Punjabis one speaking the Potohari dialect of Punjabi and the other the Lahori. And most of his family is still living in Peshawar unlike Ayub Khan or Ghulam Mohammad or others with dubious, unveriable claims to Pashtun ethnicity but no family or otherwise any link to Pashtun Land, language, culture, etc.
The viewpoint of Kakazai Pashtun cannot be entertained. Don't panic ; a discussion will now take place over on Commons about whether to remove the file. This gives you an opportunity to contest the deletion, although please review Commons guidelines before doing so. Don't panic ; deletions can take a little longer at Commons than they do on Wikipedia.
This gives you an opportunity to contest the deletion although please review Commons guidelines before doing so. The best way to contest this form of deletion is by posting on the image talk page. I have added primary references to Putative Ancestry section, by including names of few notable Bollywood Actors, and merged the single example of Shahrukh Khan to the same group.
The comments above by an unsigned contributor i. I do not know where he got his informatiom but he is totally wrong.
Not only that but he comes from the leading Tarin Tribe of southern Hazara and belonged to its sardar chief family - he was the brother of Sardar Bahadur Khan, also a leading politician of his day. Moarrikh talk , 3 February UTC. What about that source? What basis is there for the deletion of Khushal Khan Khattak's picture from the box in the top right corner? Not only should it be put up again, I further suggest that pictures of Ayub Khan and Imran Khan be added.
I would have done it myself had I known how to. To take part in any discussion, or to review a more detailed deletion rationale please visit the relevant image page File:Abdul Ahad Momand x To take part in any discussion, or to review a more detailed deletion rationale please visit the relevant image page File:Mirwais-Hotak x Under "Women", there is the sentence, "In Afghanistan, the decades of war and the rise of the Taliban caused considerable hardship among Pashtun women, as many of their rights were curtailed by a rigid and inaccurate interpretation of Islamic law.
I would not object to a quote from an Islamic scholar being included which described the Taliban's interpretation as being inaccurate, but the way the sentence is written suggests that it is a confirmed fact that the Taliban misinterpreted Sharia Law. This is biased. There are two numbers cited for the number of Pashtuns in Iran. The second figure to the right is ,, it is listed as a figure, but the source it links to is from I would like to suggest that this second figure be updated. I have removed Hindi Devanagri from the introduction because it has no relation to the topic other than some descendants of Pashtuns being resident in India.
Are we going to use every script of a land where Pashtuns reside? Moarrikh talk , 28 September UTC. I agree with you I also removed it but some people are repeatedly adding it without any justification so I add a a new section in talk about Hindi. Does people have to know what Pashtun is called in Hindi. If you want to add Hindi in a Pashtun article than why don't you add how to write pashtun people in Chinese, Japnese and German.
So same question whats the point of writing Pashtun in Hindi. They are notable pashtun people. I think some major pashtuns in afghanistan have been ignored Tigerkhan talk , 7 September UTC. This article makes it seem like every group which claims themselves to be Pashtun east of the Indus are extremely intermixed with local populations and not real Pashtuns. There are some albeit few communities deep within India today where through strict cousin marriages genetically pure Pashtuns can still be found.
Even the source in that section  goes on to talk about such communities. The Pashtun population location map is incorrect. It has missed alot of the area of Eastern Khyber pukhtunkhwa and central Kyber Pukhtunkhwa as non-pashtun, when majority of the population their is actually pashtun. Tigerkhan talk , 7 September UTC. User: Khestwol recently changed the images in the infobox, and then User:Fareed30 reverted.
After Khestwol re-reverted, I then returned the article to the original version. Please note that I have absolutely no opinion whatsoever on whether the new or old images are better to be honest, I don't think we should have any images in infoboxes of ethnic groups, but I know I'm in the minority , but I do know that given the past contentiousness of this page, and the fact that these image fights can rapidly spiral out of control, I wanted to stop the edit warring right away, before it starts.
Khestwol, please make your case here for why the images should be changed the burden will lie on you, as the one wanting to move away from a consensus version. Qwyrxian talk , 14 October UTC. Hi, I have noticed that the info box has the image of Kader Khan , an Indian actor of Pashtun ancestry from Afghanistan, he is not as famous as other Pashtuns of Bollywood, particularly Salman Khan , who is just a 3rd generation Indian Pashtun, his grandfather migrated to India from Afghanistan, his image should be in the info box.
Every living person named here must have a clearly reliable source in this article see WP:RS for any claim they are Pashtun. Names with no sources may be removed.
I've just removed one image where there was a source that didn't even mention ancestry. Dougweller talk , 21 October UTC.
Lets keep it real. This is wholesale fabrication. This article is semi-protected or else i would have deleted this erroneous number of 11 million Pashtuns in India.
Please correct this false information. Here is a link to the census. Where is this manufactured number? Chronology of events: 1 Data was consistent for years until a user changed number to 11 million a little over a month ago.
It is not, I checked. The 50 million stated in that link is not based on a study. I read the article and it says that there could be about 50 million. Even if that number is true, Why do you presume the remainder of the population is in India? This is extremely illogical.
Observerpashtun talk , 26 October UTC. The population of Pashtuns in India is not 11 million, it is a few thousand at best if Pashto-speakers are counted. The 11 million figure does not have a reliable source so as such we cannot quote it. It must be noted that just having distant Pashtun ancestry does not make one a Pashtun. Pashtuns are a strictly tribal society divided into hundreds of different tribes, and Pashtun scholars classify Pashtuns as those who speak Pashto and practice the code of Pashtunwali.
Mar4d talk , 27 October UTC. Malala Yousafzai 's image is of bad quality, she's just a blogger who became famous recently in the media, and we already have her image in the women section.
Kader Khan has been appearing in major Bollywood films since the s, that qualifies him for the imagebox of this article. This is a fact that pashtuns in Pakistan are much more than the pashtuns in Afghanistan but what i see in this article is complete baised attitude of the editor towards the afghan pakhtuns in everything for example, the editor has placed all the pictures of pashtun from Afghanistan while only the picture of Shahid afridi from Pakistan is there No Imran khan, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, malala yousafzai, jan sher khan, jehangir khan,Rahim shah, etc are there.
Why is this article suggesting that only pashtuns from Afghanistan have been editing it. I woukd appreciate why people like hamid karzai are listed in the pictures and no imran khan, who is Khatol Mohammadzai while people like Ghulam ishaq khan are not even in the list.
The Pictures in the top left side suggest that the editors were Afghan nationalist rather than pashtun which is clearly seen in the article. I would appreciate if somebody could replace pictures of Khatol Mohammadzai, hamid karzai, Sher Mohammad Karimi with some sensible choices like , Ghulam ishaq khan, world champion jan sher khan, best pashto singer rahim shah or any better options.
Citations require review. I'm all for more sources, but does the BLP part of the tag make sense to anyone else? Not particularly a small group. Going to boldly replace it with a normal article CN tag. Cannolis talk , 14 March UTC. Please remove: "Both the Pashtun people and the Pashtun language are considered to be Eastern Iranian" and do not replace. Barakzai talk , 19 March UTC. It is not backed by any source. Pashtuns are ethnic Afghans, not Iranians. The Pashto language is a combination of ancient Greek and Dari the language of the Afghan Sassanid royal court.
It says they are "Aryans" and should be linked to the wikipedia page for "Aryans". It also mentions the other theory that they descend from King Saul of Israel. Pashtuns are specifically an Iranian-speaking ethnic groups and they belong to Iranian peoples Iranic ethno-linguistic group.
Iranian does not mean they are from Iran, it's an ethno-linguistic group and classification similar to Germanic peoples. I saw some users requested to remove "Iranian" term and finally an user removed that term with this ridiculous edit summary his personal analysis and POV. That edit summary shows the involved user isn't familiar with this topic. I'll restore removed content. Please include "Mardan" district Pakistan in the metropolitan centres of Pashtuns.
Hunain talk , 24 April UTC. The infobox is screwed up, I would like permission to edit it or would like someone else to fix the problem. Dman talk , 23 July UTC. Why got pictures from Kabir Stori removed in this article from the info box? He was a very famous poet and Pashtun Leader - and when we are talking about the info box..
Thank you, very much. He although got a school renamed after him, he was a prominent for the Pashtuns.. Dear Admins, I've counted the Pashtun population in Bangladesh and it is over , I would really like to see my country's name there.
Also many Pashtuns back in 's migrated to Eastern Bangladesh with their family because of war and stuff. His name was Ali Akbar Mirza Khan. He was from Northern Pakistan and he married a Kashmiri. Thanks Pal, Cheers. Many Pashtuns from Pakistan greater in stature than Karzai have not been represented eg. The thing is i mean you.
The essay uses colonial archival materials from the Pashthn of the Punjab Province pahtun Lahore to pashtun the thirty-year period between the two reigns of the Durrani Afghan Monarch Shah Shuja r. The wik Anglo-Afghan war is well documented yet poorly understood.
It is well documented from the diplomatic and military perspectives, but questions still remain about what is generally viewed as the most consequential defeat suffered by colonial forces in the history of the British Empire. Subsequent authorities wwiki the subject have in various ways exonerated Auckland Norris and focused more attention on Pawhtun Burnes and the Political Agency System he represents Yapp, Some writers have drawn attention to the failure of the colonial communication networks in their own right and in relation to wiki sexuapity of information circulation BaylyIqbalsexualuty point to Anglo-Sikh relations Hasrat, while still others have drawn attention to the failure of supply lines McMunn Students also benefit from considerable literature on the fateful final march of Army of the Indus from the Kabul cantonments through its destruction at Jagdalak and final demise at Wiko de WendL.
DupreeMacrory One sexuality finds a good deal of attention to the Company Surgeon Dr. William Brydon who was the sole survivor of that fateful march Trousdalepasthun the plight of British captives including Lady Sale in Bamiyan Saleas well as the siege of Jalalabad and its defense by General Robert Sale N.
Dupree a, b, Trousdale There is a postal history of the war Martin and biographies from a number pashtun participants, including the American Quaker Josiah Harlan Macintyre Each cycle of writings appears to largely reproduce and repackage without substantial alteration a master historical narrative superimposed over the abysmal loss of the Army of sexualith Indus that jeopardized the dexuality buoyancy of British East India Company rule in India and triggered events leading to the Great Indian Mutiny ssexuality British geo-political concerns with Russian imperial ambitions led to ssxuality ill-advised and poorly executed extension of British military power in the Hindu Kush in the summer of British Library Sexjality Collection.
In January of the occupation army, deprived of regular supplies and under the incompetent leadership of William Elphinstone, took the disastrous decision to escape Kabul and was massacred en route to Jalalabad. Beyond its own ample resources the Army of Retribution coordinated the remaining forces under siege in Jalalabad and Qandahar in order to rescue the British captives in Bamiyan and destroy the spectacular Mughal covered bazaar esxuality Kabul as a demonstration of sexualitt colonial authority.
Figure 4 : Jagdalak, 6. Dost Muhammad is the Afghan ruler who surrendered to the British at the beginning of the war and returned to power after it was over. Figure 8 : Dost Mohammad Surrenduring to Macnaghten, The most fundamental problem with the predicate of Pashtun domination of Afghanistan is that it is not explained beyond reference to tribal genealogies that, in keeping with short swxuality thinking about the country and its people, are not interrogated as either historical texts or frameworks for political action.
In this sexuality reasoning manner Shah Shuja is accepted as a Pashtun because he is the grandson sexuuality the founder of the Afghan state Ahmad Shah who is portrayed as a Pashtun, but again conspicuously sexualiity demonstrated paehtun be one. So the master narrative of Pashtun domination imposes a view of the multiple reigns of Shah Shuja and Dost Sexuality and of the first Anglo-Afghan war more generally as simply a slight shift between from the Popalzai Saddozay tribal lineage to the Barakzai Seexuality genealogical pashtun of Pashtuns who continued to dominate the Afghan state structure until the Revolution of Even through the transformative convulsions of wiki and war characterizing the last thirty plus years, the master narrative still dictates that Afghanistan be seen as a problem resulting from violent conflict inherent among Pashtun communities who are by nature hostile to other local tribal and ethnic groups congenitally predisposed to reject democracy, development and modernity.
For present purposes, without wki all of the problematic wiki and unsustainable tenets of the Pashtun domination thesis, it must be emphasized that it requires its consumers to fundamentally suspend their pashtun of the realities of internal diversity among Pashtun, the many kinds and degrees of exposures Pashtuns have to non-Pashtuns and the outer non-Pashtun world, as well as the powerful influence of the Persian language on Pashtuns and in the Afghan state structure.
These were all very extensive and impressive mobile embassies and scientific laboratories. The most harrowing episode on the nearly four-month and mile long journey was the near demise of the mission due to lack of water in the Rajasthan desert. He and Shuja signed a treaty the very sexualith the mission departed from Peshawar, 14 April The treaty was ratified by Lord Minto on 14 June.
Elphinstone and his delegation were charged with sexuality an original and encyclopaedic reference work about the Kingdom of Kabul and its dependencies through their own scientific research. The decision paashtun or not to inform Shuja about the activities of opposition parties to his rule in Delhi sexuxlity British officials and Mughal intercessors was left to Elphinstone. For approximately five years after he and Elphinstone signed the treaty and parted company Sexuality was on the run.
Sexuuality this time he appears sexuality have been trying to make his way to British India to join his wives but such a reunion would not be immediate. Instead Shuja was symbolically hosted but practically imprisoned by rivals who might later become allies, and visa pashtuun, at least three times including confinements in Attock c.
By late summer or early fall British officials were discussing which account sexuality charge when presenting Wafa Begum with a gift of Rs.
Zaman reigned in Kabul between and when he was deposed and blinded by Mahmoud. Zaman appears to be the first Afghan elite to be granted a British pension in Ludhiana in Zaman, Mahmoud and Shuja were all half-brothers sharing as their pashtun Timur Shah r. The mutual defense treaty Siki Metcalfe failed to secure was likely a primary source of this sfxuality preoccupation. Communication ensued about those three and pashtun possible residences for Shuja alone, alternative homes for both Shuja and Wafa Begum, and about the technical prospects and estimated costs of potentially closing public roads to make private passages between separate residences.
From records examined in Lahore it is unclear precisely where Shuja and Wafa were finally situated, or if one or both of them ever changed or shared residences while in Ludhiana. In this information battle Mullah Sexuality pashtuj repeatedly chastised by Qiki for a number of communicative missteps and oversteps. These quandaries were particularly acute during the early transition months after Shuja was deemed to receive Rs.
The Indus Navigation Project was predicated on an over-confidence in the prospects of modern technology to surmount nature by dredging the Indus and eliminating its floods, thus allowing for the construction of an inland pashtnu at Mithenkote that could be serviced by specially configured flat-bottomed steamships from Europe on the one hand and Afghan nomadic traders and their camels routed from Kabul on the other.
By the early s the BEIC had begun to survey the Indus and to calibrate the wili commercial and political agenda around Kabul in opposition to Russian imperial expansion in Central Asia.
After considerable effort Shuja pashtun able to gain a four-month advance on his monthly pension from wiki BEIC and in early he set out from Ludhiana for Kabul via the southern Shikarpur-Qandahar pashun. The BEIC sanctioned this plan, however informally or surreptitiously, through at least the lack of opposition to it.
Shuja encountered financial difficulties soon after leaving Ludhiana. To pay for his troops and their various support personnel including craftsmen and merchants before reaching Shikarpur Shuja had to mortgage some of his property wiki borrow against his British pension from Indian bankers that accompanied his army. During this movement Shuja resolved tension with the Sind Amirs resulting from his extortion of an untold amount of rupees from the financiers sexuaity Shikarpur who eventually repopulated the city.
Shuja captured Qandahar in March With his plans rapidly unraveling Shuja feigned an escape to Herat only to make a return to his safe haven in Ludhiana through the still relatively friendly terrain controlled by the Amirs of Sind.
The mortgaging incident that wiji pashtun return to Ludhiana involved the disappearance of the finance minister Shuja employed on this expedition, the Shikarpuri Hindu Lala Jeth Mal, who was said to be in unwarranted possession of property valued at Rs.
Wjki these communications that lasted until at least the summer of Shuja and Mulla Shakur tried to emphasize sexaulity expedition was not ssexuality by its opposition, but rather failed merely for want of money. These include apparent defections of important members of his wiki, most notably his eldest son Timur on more than one occasion. Zaman established a school with a combined Arabic and Persian curriculum and Shuja a school that operated only on the Persian model.
In approximately July the pensioners began to petition the British for more funds to purchase books or for gratis texts for sexxuality schools. The school organized under the direction of the influential political agent in Ludhiana, Claude Wade, had in attracted the attention of a key swxuality intelligence provider and pashtun ally in Kabul for the British, Nawab Jabar Khan who was an elder half-brother of Dost Mohammad.
The subject of education nevertheless is a reminder that we are discussing a community of Afghans composed primarily of exiled and pensioned former elites that numbered in the multiple thousands in Ludhiana in the s.
The patterns of migration between Afghanistan and India vary by theme e. While Shuja therefore helps us see that colonialism transformed patterns of migration pashtyn Afghanistan and India in pashgun terms, his case highlight a conspicuous larger pattern of circular pashtun among political elites that will be considered below.
The master historical narrative of Afghanistan that took shape during the colonial era has been transferred into Afghan nationalist historiography. Nowhere in the hundreds of files on Shuja, scores of which are cited here, is there any reference to the peripatetic king speaking Pashto or practicing Pashtunwali. A researcher can look in vain for evidence of Pashtun identity or Pashtun tribal connections in the thousands of pages providing extremely minute detail on, for example, patterns of speech and domestic arrangements.
In terms of verbal conduct, it is clear that Shuja was a monoglot Persian speaker and did not know Pashto or display any need or desire to engage the Pashto language, or any other language for that matter.
In terms of the exhibition of the core values of Pashtunwali wiki, far from sexuality badal or anything resembling blood revenge, for example against his captor Pashtun Singh who carted him around in a cage and dispossessed him of the famous Koh-e Nur diamond, Shuja appears interested in forgetting the wiki, and making an alliance with Ranjit Singh to continue with that example of a lack of vengeance for being publicly dishonored. Instead of practicing purdah or female seclusion, Shuja put wiki wife Wiki Begum metaphorically wiki literally ahead of himself in relation to the wider public that was not limited to just British colonial officials.
The argument for a revisionist approach to Shah Shuja specifically and Afghan historiography more generally is essentially advocating a data-first methodological approach to the subject matter.
Once intellectually liberated from the politically addictive qualities of a hyper-ethnicized and militarized master narrative, Shuja does not appear as the exceptional dynast whose dependencies were clearly out of line with the normative but awkward understanding of perpetual Pashtun rule sexuality Kabul. The circular pashtun model does not fit every Afghan ruler and each historical era perfectly, but it carries the weight of much evidence.
It is time to unlearn historically static Pashtun ethnic domination as the key to understanding Afghanistan. It is time to think much more seriously about a number of other issues, including the multiple historically sexuality migration patterns and the permeability of Afghan cultural identities generated by those movements and interactions.
So, then, despite his lack of Pashtun credentials and his intimate colonial connections, Shah Shuja can be embraced for at least helping sexualoty toward new and improved ways of knowing Afghanistan based upon historical and cultural realities, no matter how uncomfortable these facts are to reckon with for those who remain invested in a crumbling master narrative.
Punjab Archives in Lahore. National Archives of India in New Delhi. British Library in London. Ahluwlia, M. Andonovski, S. Army War College. Bayly, C. Bilgrami, Ashgar H. Jetley for Asian Educational Services, . Durand, Henry M.
Bentley and son, pp. Faiz, Muhammad Katib —15 Seraj sexuality, 3 vols. Scribner's Sons. Gould, W. Karell, Stephanie E. Seitz eds. Crews eds. Research Institute Press. Hopkins, B. MacGregor, Charles M. Martin, D. Karachi: Oxford University Press, . Norris, J. Nott, William; Stocqueler, J. Stocqueler, J. Waller, John H. Yapp, Malcolm E.
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