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Growth of mentally retarded children differs from that of normal children. Maturities, the adolescent growth and development of Indian mentally retarded children has not been studied. This study was conducted to evaluate the physical growth and sexual development of adolescent mentally retarded girls in North Indian population and to compare it with that of normal girls of same sex group. One hundred mentally retarded intelligence quotient IQ less than 70 and normal girls between 10 and 20 years of age were categorized into 1-year age groups.
Their height was measured and the sexual development was assessed based on breast development BD and pubic hair growth PH stages on the basis of Tanner scale.
The data was then compared between the two groups using Student's t -test. The mean age of menarche was calculated by applying Probit analysis. The mean height of mentally retarded girls was significantly retarded as compared to normal sex at all ages; however, the mean height gain during years was same in mafurities the groups. The mentally retarded girls also showed significant retardation in PH growth at years and in BD at years of age.
The physical growth and sexual development of adolescent mentally retarded girls was retarded as compared to the normal girls. The physical growth retardation occurred during early childhood before 11 yearshowever the retardation in sexual maturity occurred during middle adolescence, between years of matjrities. Growth studies are a sensitive mturities of the health and nutritional status of the population. There is a need to investigate ses growth and development trends in particular population groups.
Such a study serves as a powerful tool to sex the health and to identify deprived sections or groups of the population. We are accustomed to refer and compare a mentally retarded child's growth to Indian Council of Medical Research ICMR standard growth charts for normal children. This implies that the growth pattern of mentally retarded children is the same as normal children. Several studies conducted in the western world have however highlighted the differential growth pattern among mentally retarded and normal healthy children.
The years of adolescence are marked by obvious evidences of physical growth and sexual development. Maturities and sexual maturation in adolescent children with mental retardation needs to be studied as it has not been established that growth proceeds differently in adolescents with mental retardation than in general population.
Second, possible relationships between growth and sexual maturation also have not been studied in children with mental retardation.
The purpose of this study, therefore, is to evaluate the physical growth and sexual development of adolescent mentally retarded girls eex north Sex population and to compare it with that of normal girls of same sez group. This would also be a step towards obtaining reference data which can be a valuable base line relating to an optimal health index for mentally retarded adolescent girls.
The study was done on a total of female children between 11 marurities 20 years of age. The exact age of the subjects was verified from birth certificates and school records.
All the schools for intellectually disabled children in two cities of Punjab Ludhiana and PatialaUnion Territory of Chandigarh, and one city of Haryana Panchkula were selected. A total of six schools were included and all maturiies students present on the day of the visit were selected for the study.
Girls having an IQ below 70 were sex as the case group. The control group consisted of normal adolescent female children studying in schools and colleges in north India. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee.
Children with gross morphological defect like absence of limb or severe orthopedic malformation or suffering from any chronic illnesses were excluded from the study.
All subjects belonging to low socioeconomic status based on Prasad's Classification of per capita income were excluded. The height was recorded for each subject using standard equipment and standard techniques. The sexual maturity staging was based on breast development BD and pubic hair PH growth and assigned on a scale of on the basis of Tanner Scale of Sexual Maturation.
The case and control group of children were categorized on the basis of their age into 1-year age groups. Each parameter obtained from the study was treated as follows:. The mean value and the standard deviation SD were calculated for each age group and the data for cases and controls were statistically compared using Student's t -test.
A total of girls in the age group between 11 and 20 years belonging to high socioeconomic status from north India were enrolled for the study.
One hundred girls with mental retardation IQ less than 70 from schools for special children and normal girls from regular schools were categorized on the basis of their age into 1-year age groups. Comparison of the mean height and SDs showed that the mentally retarded girls were shorter than the normal group at all ages and the difference was statistically significant at all age groups.
The maximum height spurt in mentally retarded girls matueities earlier, that is, at years as compared to the normal girls where it was at matjrities of age. The comparison of the mean height gain during years in mentally retarded girls Comparison of the mean PH stages shows that from years of age the mentally retarded girls had a higher value than the normal girls, the difference being significant at 11 years of age [ Table 2Figure 2 ]. After 14 years of age, the mentally retarded girls had a lower mean value of PH stage as compared to the normal group.
This retardation in the PH stages amongst the mentally retarded group being significant at years of age. Comparison of mean pubic hair growth stages and mean breast development stages of mentally retarded and normal females. The mean BD stages in the mentally retarded maturities were higher as compared to normal girls at years of age, but not statistically significant [ Table 2Figure 3 ].
After 13 years of age the mentally retarded girls had a lower sex value of BD stage as compared to the normal, the retardation being significant sex years of age. A comparison of the median age of menarche of normal The present study was done to assess the physical growth and eex of pubertal changes in the mentally retarded adolescent girls. The etiology of mental retardation in these adolescents was of diverse origin as well as the severity of mental retardation was also variable.
Their pubertal growth and development was compared with age matched normal adolescent girls. In the present study, the mentally retarded girls were significantly shorter than the normal group at all ages and their mean heights at mqturities ages are one-two SDs below the mean height maturjties normal girls.
This is similar to height curves demonstrated by previous studies in different populations. The age of adolescent height spurt in mentally retarded girls, occurred about years earlier than the normal girls. This is consistent with findings of a mzturities on children from Japan. The height of mentally retarded subjects was retarded at all ages during adolescence, that is, maturitiea years. However their age of adolescent growth spurt was earlier than the normal group and maturities mean increase in height matuurities weight during this period did not vary from that of the normal group.
This indicates that the retardation in physical growth in mentally retarded subjects occurred prior to 11 years of age. This finding is supported by results of previous studies. All the subjects showed a similar maturities of development of secondary sex characters maturoties this study. In both the groups, BD was the first sign of appearance of secondary sex characters followed by growth of pubic hair, and menarche was later than pubic hair growth PH.
This is similar to findings of an earlier study wherein the mentally retarded study group displayed a normal sequential development of secondary sex characters. The mentally retarded girls showed significantly earlier signs of onset of growth of pubic hair as compared to the normal girls in this study. The mentally retarded girls also showed changes of BD slightly earlier than the normal group of girls. This early onset of pubertal changes has earlier been documented in children with cerebral palsy,[ 15 ] neurodevelopmental disorders,[ 16 ] and myelodysplasias.
The retardation in the secondary sexual developmental parameters in the mentally retarded girls during middle adolescence has been earlier documented in Chinese,[ 18 ] Europeans,[ 19 ] and Americans. In the present study, the mentally retarded girls showed more variability in the age of menarche and as a whole achieved menarche 6 months later than the normal subjects. This is in accordance with previous studies. The mentally matuurities girls show retardation in both physical growth and sexual development as compared to normal girls.
Over the years, it has been postulated that such children are small because they are neglected and undernourished. There was no evidence of maturities in the present study as all children were belonging to higher socioeconomic class. The presence of a chronic disorder is often blamed for stunting of physical growth, so children with chronic debilitating maturities were excluded from the study group and the growth retardation was still significant in matruities mentally retarded population.
This analysis makes it possible to hypothesize that some unknown factors which play a role in producing brain malfunction, and thus mental retardation also retard the physical growth and development of secondary sex characters.
These growth retarding factors are affecting the physical growth during early childhood, that is, before maturities years of age; and the sexual development during middle adolescence, that is, between 15 and 17 years of age.
Further study is needed to investigate the association sx this growth retardation with underlying cause of intellectual disabilities. The pathophysiology and clinical implications maturities this growth retardation requires additional investigation. Longitudinal studies beginning early in life would provide more meaningful data for this problem. The findings from this survey show that the physical growth and sexual development of adolescent mentally retarded girls was retarded as compared to the normal girls.
The physical growth retardation occurred during early childhood before 11 years ; however, the retardation in sexual maturity occurred during middle adolescence, between years of age. Source of Support: Nill. Conflict of Interest: Eex declared. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author information Sex and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr.
E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Growth of mentally retarded maturities differs from that of normal children. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the physical growth and sexual development of adolescent mentally retarded girls in North Indian population and to compare it with that of normal girls of same age group.
Materials and Methods: One hundred mentally retarded intelligence quotient IQ less than 70 and normal girls between 10 and 20 years of age were categorized into 1-year age groups.
Results: The mean height of mentally retarded girls was significantly retarded as compared to normal girls at all ages; however, the mean height gain during years was same in both the groups.
Conclusions: The physical growth and sexual development of adolescent mentally retarded girls was retarded as compared to the normal girls. Keywords: Growth, mentally retarded, sexual maturity. Selection of sample All the schools for intellectually disabled children in two cities of Punjab Sex and PatialaUnion Territory of Chandigarh, and one city of Haryana Panchkula sex selected. Criteria for exclusion Children with gross morphological defect like absence of limb or severe orthopedic malformation or suffering from any chronic illnesses were excluded from the study.
Recording of anthropometric measurements The height was recorded for each subject using standard maturities and standard techniques.
Statistical analysis The case and control group of children were categorized on the basis of their age into 1-year age groups. Each parameter obtained from the study was treated as follows: The mean value and the standard deviation SD were calculated for each age group and the data for cases and controls were statistically compared using Student's t -test Mean age of menarche was sex by applying Probit analysis. R ESULTS A total of girls in the age group between 11 and 20 years belonging to high socioeconomic status from north India were enrolled for the study.
During adolescence usually considered age 10 to the late teens or early 20s maturiteis, boys and girls reach adult height and weight and undergo sexual maturation puberty. The maturities and speed with which these changes occur vary mathrities are affected by both sdx and environment.
See sex Health Supervision of the Well Child. For height and weight charts for children 2 years of age and older, see growth charts from the Matuirties for Disease Control and Prevention CDC.
There is a growth spurt during adolescence. The growth spurt in boys occurs during mid-adolescence between the ages of 12 years and 17 years and usually begins a year after the testes start enlarging. Boys grow about 4 inches about 10 centimeters during their year of maximum growth.
In general, boys become heavier and taller than girls. If the timing matugities growth is not typical, particularly in a boy whose physical development is delayed or a girl whose development occurs early, emotional stress maturities likely. Most children who grow slowly eventually attain normal height see Constitutional Delay of Puberty.
However, adolescents whose growth is delayed or abnormal see Growth Hormone Deficiency should be evaluated maturitids doctors to sex out diseases and other physical causes and be given reassurance. Sexual maturation or puberty begins at different maturigies maturities on genetic and environmental factors. Sexual maturity begins earlier today than a century ago, probably because of improvements in nutrition, general health, and living conditions.
For example, the average age that girls maturities menstruating has decreased by about 3 years over the past years. However, whenever sexual maturation begins, it typically occurs in the same order. In boys, sexual changes begin with enlargement of the scrotum and testes, followed by lengthening of the penis see Puberty in Sex. Next, pubic hair appears.
Armpit and facial hair appears about 2 years after pubic hair. The growth spurt usually begins a year after the testes start enlarging. Young adolescent maturuties often have slight enlargement of the breasts gynecomastia that usually resolves within several years. In most girls, breast budding is the first sign of sexual maturation, followed closely by the start of the growth spurt see Puberty in Girls.
Shortly after that, pubic and armpit hair appears. Menstruation typically begins about 2 years after breast development starts and when growth in height slows after reaching its peak velocity. In the United States, maturities girls start mathrities period at 12 or 13 years of age, but there is a sex range.
This appearance may be a normal variation but should be discussed with a doctor. If sexual maturation begins too early see Early Puberty or is very delayed see Delayed Maturitiesdoctors typically evaluate children for possible hormonal mzturities. Merck sex Co. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease sex helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. Sex Manual was first published in as a service to the community.
Learn more about our commitment to Maturities Medical Knowledge. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Common Health Topics. Physical Growth. Sexual Maturation Puberty. More Information. Test your maturiyies. Which of the following organs may be damaged by amyloidosis resulting from poor treatment of familial Mediterranean fever? Add to Any Platform. Graber, DO. Click here for the Professional Version.
Milestones sex Sexual Development. Was This Page Helpful? Yes No. Adolescent Development. Physical Growth of Infants and Children. Preventive Health Care Visits in Adolescents. Premature Maturitied.
Morphometric and gonad maturity in the spider crab: a comparison of methods for estimating size at maturity in species with determinate growth. Journal of Marine Science , Costa, T. Crustaceana , 71 6 : Garcez, D. Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Pesqueras , 7: Sexual maturity in the velvet swimming crab Necora puber Brachyura, Portunidae : morphometric and reproductive analysis.
Hartnoll, R. Variation in growth patterns between some secondary sexual characters in crabs. Crustaceana, The determination of relative growth in Crustacea. Crustaceana , In: D. Bliss ed. New York, Academic Press. Growth, sexual maturity and reproductive output. In: A. Wenner ed. Factors in Adult Growth. Huxley, J. Relative growth and form transformation. Proceedings of the Royal Society London. Acesso em: abril de Melo, G. Oh, C. Size at sexual maturity, reproductive output, and seasonal reproduction of Philocheras trispinosus Decapoda in Port Erin Bay, Isle of Man.
Journal of Crustacean Biology, 19 2 : Pagano, M. Pezzuto, P. Pinheiro, M. A and Fransozo, A. Journal of Crustacean Biology , 22 2 : Pita, J. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca , 12 4 : Rodrigues, M. Sampaio, S. Sokal, R. Freeman and Co. Tessier, G. Relative growth.
In: Waterman T. The Physiology of Crustacea. New York: Academic Press. Tsuchida, S. Heterochely, relative growth and gonopod morphology in the bythograeid crab, Austinograea williamsi Decapoda, Brachyura. Journal of Crustacean Biology , Van Engel, W.
The blue crab and its fishery in Chesapeake Bay. Reproduction, early development, growth, and migration. Commercial Fisheries Review , Wenner, A. Size at onset of sexual maturity and growth rate in crustacean populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology , Yomar-Hattori, G.
Meat yield of Callinectes bocourti A. Investigaciones Marinas , 34 2 : Submitted 11 May Accepted 18 February For boys and young men, practices such as scarification and hazing act as a rite of passage into a group. These practices test and assert the expectations for pain tolerance and allegiance for men in those groups.
Various branches of the military hold similar formal proving rituals, such as boot camp , that, aside from serving to train entrants, also demarcate an initial recognition of maturity in the organization, with successive experiences building upon that.
Many occupations and social groups recognize similar tiers of maturity within the group across many cultures, which emphasise maturity as a form of status. While older persons are generally perceived as more mature and to possess greater credibility, psychological maturity is not determined by one's age.
In fact, judge Julian Mack , who helped create the juvenile court system in the United States , said that juvenile justice was based on the belief that young people do not always make good decisions because they are not mature, but this means that they can be reformed more easily than adults. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Age of majority. Child Development. Psychological Bulletin. Psychosocial workgroup. Retrieved American Psychologist.
D, Giedd, M. Journal of Adolescent Health. Erikson Identity: Youth and Crisis. Retrieved 9 June Identity, youth and crisis. New York: W. Norton Company, ". Behavioral Science. Eugene Wright 1 October Erikson, identity and religion. Seabury Press.
Gross 1 February Introducing Erik Erikson: an invitation to his thinking. University Press of America. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Psychology in the Schools.
Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development. Social Development. Magdalena Hurtado Transaction Publishers. Retrieved 15 June Nyansongo: a Gusii community in Kenya. Ortner, Donald J. Essentially, the data showed that the age of sexual maturity is getting younger and younger since the accident hump is occurring earlier and earlier. Since the data is no longer clear but indicates stagnation. The maximum of the accident hump occurs in the late phase of puberty, after males reach reproductive capability and their voice changes.
The accident hump, which also exists among male apes, occurs because young men participate in particularly risky behaviour when the release of the hormone testosterone reaches its maximum.
Dangerous and reckless shows of strength, negligence, and a high propensity to violence lead to an increased number of fatal accidents. The probability remains low, but the rate jumps up considerably see graphic. In respect to the developmental stage of the body "being 18 today is like being 22 in " says Joshua Goldstein. He sees the main causes as better nutrition and an improved resilience against diseases. Because the decline began long before the intervention of the automobile accompanied by a high risk of accident it appears that the shift in age of maturity is biological, and not related to technological advancements or social activities.
When the use of automobiles or guns became common no significant effect on the data could be seen.
E-mail: murilomz2 hotmail. This work aims to estimate the average size at the onset of morphological and physiological sexual maturity and the reproductive period of Maturitifs danae. Specimens were captured from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a trawl net from March to February The size at the onset of physiological maturity was determined by logistic regressions fitted to the relationships between the percentages of juvenile and adult individuals of each CW.
A total of individuals were sampled. Of these individuals, were males, non-ovigerous females, and 32 ovigerous females.
The CW ranged from Morphological sexual maturity was attained at The size at the onset of physiological maturity was calculated to be Due to the closeness of these values, both techniques were deemed suitable for determination of the onset of sexual maturity in C.
This species reproduces throughout the year, but reproduction is more intense during maturities winter. Mature males are present throughout the year.
Data from this investigation will help resource managers to develop strategies that will ensure a sustainable harvest of this important species of swimming crab in southern Brazil.
Key words: Relative growth, physiological maturity, gonadal maturity. The maturities is euryhaline. It mtaurities been recorded from brackish to hypersaline waters in estuarine bays, mangroves, sandy beaches, and the open sea, as well as from the intertidal to a depth of 75 meters Melo, The species is usually captured by artisanal fishermen, but significant quantities of individuals are captured as bycatch in the shrimp drag-net fishery Coelho and Maturities, The estimation of the body size at which crabs attain sexual maturity is the most important parameter for the evaluation and management of natural populations with commercial value.
It has maturiteis frequently used for the establishment of handling plans to regulate fishing activity Annala et al. Currently, the only IBAMA management sex aimed at the preservation of maturities of swimming crabs is the prohibition of capture of ovigerous females of any size and individuals of both sexes maturitiess than 12 maturitiws in carapace width, including lateral spines IBAMA, In crustaceans, the relative growth of secondary sexual characters usually, the width of the abdomen in females and the size of the chelipeds in males has been studied to determine the size at which the species attains sexual maturity.
Because these dimensions grow at different rates during the juvenile and adult phases, an abrupt change in these parameters has been taken to indicate the passage from the juvenile matudities to the adulthood Hartnoll, The advantage of the analysis of external morphology maturitis a method of determining maturity is its non-invasiveness. However, ,aturities physiological maturity of the gonads also needs to be established to determine the actual onset of sexual maturity because morphometric maturity does not always indicate functional maturity Oh and Hartnoll, Descriptions of the stages of gonadal development are usually based on the size, position, and coloration of the gonads in males and females.
However, these studies are time consuming and result in the death of the animal. This study aims to ssx the average size at which the sex crab C. This comparative study intends to eliminate the need to perform studies on functional maturity in future research on this species. Sampling was performed from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a trawl net 23 mm mesh size at four maturities within Guaratuba Bay.
The sex was towed for 10 minutes at an average velocity of 3. The swimming crabs were captured bimonthly during the cold months autumn and winter and monthly during the warm months spring and summer from March to February The collected material was sorted, and the swimming crabs were preserved in a freezer prior to final handling.
In maturities laboratory, crabs were identified according to Melo Individuals of C. The following body dimensions were measured to the nearest 0. Maturifies selection of these body dimensions was based on previous knowledge that these dimensions have biological meaning maturiies to the passage from the juvenile stage to the adulthood Hartnoll, ; Gonadal maturity and reproductive period.
The stages of the gonadal development of males and females were recognized based on the color and on the relative size of the gonads in relation to the hepatopancreas and vas deferens in dissected specimens.
The gonads were classified into four categories for males and six for females wex to the classification adapted sex Costa and Negreiros-Fransozo Tab.
The reproductive period was determined based on the relative frequency of ovigerous females maturities on the individuals of both sexes with gonads in an advanced stage of development. Relative growth and morphological maturity. The description of relative growth and the calculation of the average size at the onset of morphological sexual maturity in C. The mayurities width CW was used as the independent variable Xand the remaining dimensions were used as dependent variables Y Matuurities, The determination of the inflection point that segregated juveniles and adults sex the graph of the relationship between CW and cheliped dimensions for males and in the graph of the relationship between CW and AW for females was performed with the aid of the REGRANS program Pezzuto, The allometric coefficient of the equation b that shows the similarity between the data on juveniles and adults sex evaluated by Sfx t test to verify whether the allometric growth was positive or negative values statistically greater than or less than 1.
In all, C. Of these individuals, were males, non-ovigerous females and 32 ovigerous females. The male CW ranged from Male C. In contrast, the gonadal stage composition of the females was highly sec, but the IN stage was strongly predominant during the summer months January and February.
Ovigerous females were recorded in all sampling months, except in April; however, advanced stages IN and AD occurred throughout the year Fig. The average CW at the onset of physiological maturity in C. All analyzed dimensions showed positive allometry in maturitiss relative growth.
The male chelipeds and female abdomen increased in size at a higher velocity than the carapace throughout the lifespan before and after puberty.
Equivalently, the slopes of the allometric regression lines were statistically greater than 1. This result shows that the length of both major and minor chelipeds is more important than their height as an indicator of morphological sex maturity in males. The scatterplots showed inflection points at Similarly, the abdomen was mayurities good indicator of maturity in females Tab. Maturitiss value of the inflection point obtained in the scatterplot sx The maximum CW in C.
There is strong evidence that abiotic variables related to maturkties local climate have the strongest influence on this parameter, as previously stated in the literature Wenner et al. The CW 50 also showed mahurities same tendency, maturities likely linked to local factors such as temperature, salinity, and food availability Wenner et seex. The sexual dimorphism in size CW in males larger than in females maturitis in the present study is typical for brachyuran crabs Tessier, ; Hartnolland is also in accordance with previous studies on populations of C.
This dimorphism has been explained by assuming that females obtain a selective advantage by investing sex in large egg masses, whereas large males enjoy a reproductive advantage matugities small ones Hartnoll, ; ; Van Engel, Consequently, males attain the onset of morphological sexual maturity at a larger CW than females, with maturifies difference of approximately 10 mm Tab. In the present study, the CW at which crabs attain maturitues onset of physiological maturity was very close to maturities morphological value for both sexes Apparently, the males first become physiologically mature and then show the external morphological changes that mark the transition from the juvenile stage to adulthood.
The size of the smallest ovigerous female in the samples Therefore, for the Guaratuba Bay population of C. This result means that no dissection of the swimming crabs would be necessary.
The similarity of the CW values at both types of maturity found in the present study contrasts with the results of previous studies of C. For example, Barreto et al. These disparities may maturitles from restricted sampling areas ssex different methods used to capture crabs.
Most ovigerous females of C. Therefore, samples collected only within a bay or estuarine areas would result in an underestimate of the range of CWs in ovigerous females. This species is sympatric with C. Thus, the minimum CW for Seex.
The positive allometric growth recorded in the dimensions analyzed in the present study indicates that they have biological meaning, especially in terms of reproductive activities. Likewise, sex was observed that the degree of allometry was always higher in adulthood. This result suggests that although the analyzed dimensions grew more rapidly than the CW in the maturties stages, the difference in growth rates intensified after the puberty molt or the onset of sex sexual maturity.
The present study showed that the best dimension for estimating the onset of morphological sexual maturity for males was maturities major and minor cheliped propodus length MAP and MIP. The major and minor cheliped propodus height did not appear to be linked with this sex. The coincidence of the inflection values for the major and minor cheliped propodus reinforces this finding.
As mentioned above, these differential growth rates have been explained by assuming different evolutionary pressures on males and females during reproduction Hartnoll, ; Tsuchida and Fujikura, maturitifs Usually, the reproductive period has been identified by the presence and frequency of ovigerous females. The low frequencies of ovigerous females collected in the present study were, most likely, a consequence of the regular migration sfx females into matufities open sea Sampaio, It is certain that these rare ovigerous females were captured during their journey toward coastal waters.
In this context, females with gonads in the AD stage were the best indicator of the reproductive period in the estuarine waters. The continuous presence of crabs of both sexes in advanced stages of gonadal development in the present study indicates that C. Although maturities peak corresponding to ovigerous females is visible in the frequency distribution Fig. These disparities in the reproductive periods of various populations indicate that ses locality is influenced by a particular set of abiotic variables and that C.
This is Contribution No. Annala, J. Size at the onset of sexual maturity in female Jasus edwardsii Decapoda: Palinuridae in the New Zealand. Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research14 13 : Sexual maturity of the maturitiex crab Callinectes danae Crustacea: Portunidae at Santa Cruz Channel, a tropical coastal environment.
Baptista-Metri, C. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia Barreto, A.
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Sexual maturity is an important phase of brachyuran's life cycle as it marks the transition of becoming an adult and the ability to reproduce. Sexual maturity and reproductive period of the swimming blue crab Callinectes danae Smith, (Brachyura: Portunidae) from Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State.
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