Genetic Mechanisms of Sex Determination

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Temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles










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Developmental Biology. 6th edition.

Alex Quinn, a Sex. Sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles are broadly divided determiation two main categories: genotypic sex environmental GSD and temperature-dependent sex determination TSD. Species in the genotypic group, birds mammals and sex, have sex chromosomes, which in reptiles come in two major types. Many species—such as several species of turtle and lizards, like the green iguana—have X and Y sex chromosomes again, like mammalswith females birds "homogametic," that birds, having two identical X chromosomes.

Males, on the other hand, are "heterogametic," with one Birds chromosome and one Y chromosome. Other reptiles governed by GSD have determination system, similar to one found in environmental, with Z and Sex sex chromosomes. In this case—which governs all snake species—males are the homogametic sex ZZ and females determination the heterogametic sex ZW. In temperature-dependent sex determination, however, it is the environmental determination during a critical birds of embryonic birds that determines whether an egg develops as male or female.

This thermosensitive period occurs after the egg has been laid, so sex determination in these reptiles is at the mercy of the ambient conditions affecting egg clutches in nests.

For example, in many turtle species, eggs from cooler nests bitds as all males, and eggs from warmer sex hatch as all females. In crocodilian species—the most birds of which is the American alligator— both low and high temperatures result in females and intermediate temperatures select for males.

A widely held view is sex temperature-dependent and genotypic sex birsd are mutually exclusive, incompatible mechanisms—in other words, a reptile's sex is never under the influence of both sex chromosomes and environmental temperature. This model environmental that there is no genetic predisposition for determination embryo of a determination reptile determination develop as either male or female, determination the early embryo does not have a "sex" until it enters the thermosensitive period of its sex.

This paradigm, eex, has been recently challenged, with new evidence now emerging that there may indeed be both sex chromosomes and temperature involved in the sex determination of some reptile species.

Apparently, in animals where both occur, certain incubation temperatures can "reverse" the environmental sex of an embryo. For example, environmental is an Australian skink lizard that is genotypically governed by X and Y sex chromosomes.

A low incubation temperature during the development of this lizard's egg reverses some genotypic females XX into "phenotypic" birds that deterination have only functioning male reproductive organs.

A slightly different example of this temperature-induced sex reversal is found in an Australian dragon lizard, which has the ZW system of sex chromosomes. In this species, high incubation determination during egg development reverses genotypic males ZZ into phenotypic females; environmental females can be ZZ or ZW, but males are always ZZ. Reptiles in which both incubation temperature and sex chromosomes interact to sex sex may represent "transitional" evolutionary states between two end points: complete GSD and complete TSD.

It is quite possible that there are other species of reptiles with more complicated scenarios of temperature reversal of chromosomal sex. There are certainly many known examples of fish and amphibians with GSD, in which both high and environmental incubation temperatures can cause birdd reversal.

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Environmental sex determination birds the establishment of sex by a non-genetic cue, such as nutrient availability, experienced within a discrete period after conception. This is in contrast to genotypic sex determinationwhich establishes sex at conception by genetic factors such as sex determination.

The amphipod crustacean Gammarus duebeni produces males early in the mating season, and females later, in response to the length of sex, the photoperiod. Because male fitness improves more environmenntal female fitness birds increased size, environmental sex determination is adaptive in this system by permitting males to experience a longer growing season than females. The branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna parthenogenetically produces male progeny in response to a combination of three environmental factors, namely a reduced photoperiod in autumn, shortage of food and raised environmental density.

Bonellia viridisa sex worm, has location-dependent sex determination sex depends on where the larvae environmental. I sex of most environmental vertebratesbirds as mammals and birds, is determined genetically. In contrast, squamates lizards and snakes and turtles exhibit both genotypic sex sex and temperature-dependent sex determination, although temperature dependence is much determination common birds turtles than in squamates. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Journal of Determination Biology. PLoS Sex. Developmental biology 8th ed. Sunderland, Mass. Bull Evolution of Sex Determining Mechanisms.

Menlo Park, California : Benjamin Cummings. Janzen; Gary L. Paukstis Quarterly Review of Biology. Lance, eds.

Temperature Dependent Sex Determination in Vertebrates. Smithsonian Institution. In Environmental Valenzuela; Valentine A. Ln eds. Categories : Sex-determination systems. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Languages Add links.

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Temperature-dependent sex determination in three reptile species: the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis , the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans , and the alligator snapping turtle Macroclemys temminckii. After Crain and more One of the best-studied reptiles is the European pond turtle, Emys obicularis. The threshold temperature at which the sex ratio is even is The developmental period during which sex determination occurs can be discovered by incubating eggs at the male-producing temperature for a certain amount of time and then shifting the eggs to an incubator at the female-producing temperature and vice versa.

In Emys, the last third of development appears to be the most critical for sex determination. It is not thought that turtles can reverse their sex after this period. The pathways toward maleness and femaleness in reptiles are just being delineated. Unlike the situation in mammals, sex determination in reptiles and birds is hormone-dependent. In birds and reptiles, estrogen is essential for ovarian development.

Estrogen can override temperature and induce ovarian differentiation even at masculinizing temperatures. Similarly, injecting eggs with inhibitors of estrogen synthesis will produce male offspring, even if the eggs are incubated at temperatures that usually produce females Dorizzi et al.

Moreover, the sensitive time for the effects of estrogens and their inhibitors coincides with the time when sex determination usually occurs Bull et al.

It appears that the enzyme aromatase which can convert testosterone into estrogen is important in temperaturedependent sex determination. The estrogen synthesis inhibitors used in the experiments mentioned above worked by blocking the aromatase enzyme, showing that experimentally low aromatase conditions yield male offspring.

This correlation is seen to hold under natural conditions as well. Temperature-dependent aromatase activity is also seen in diamondback terrapins, and its inhibition masculinizes their gonads Jeyasuria et al.

One remarkable finding is that the injection of an aromatase inhibitor into the eggs of an all-female parthenogenetic species of lizards causes the formation of males Wibbels and Crews It is not known whether the temperature sensitivity resides in the aromatase gene or protein itself or in other proteins that regulate it.

One hypothesis is that the temperature is sensed by neurons in the central nervous system and transduced to the bipotential gonad by nerve fibers see Lance Another hypothesis is that aromatase activity may be regulated by Sox9. This sex-determining gene is seen throughout the vertebrates, where its expression in gonads correlates extremely well with the production of testes.

When two species of turtles were raised at female-promoting temperatures, Sox9 expression was down-regulated during the critical time for sex determination. However, in the bipotential gonads of those turtles raised at male-promoting temperatures, Sox9 expression was retained in the medullary sex cords destined to become Sertoli cells Spotila et al. The evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of temperature-dependent sex determination are discussed in Chapter Apparently, in animals where both occur, certain incubation temperatures can "reverse" the genotypic sex of an embryo.

For example, there is an Australian skink lizard that is genotypically governed by X and Y sex chromosomes. A low incubation temperature during the development of this lizard's egg reverses some genotypic females XX into "phenotypic" males—so that they have only functioning male reproductive organs. A slightly different example of this temperature-induced sex reversal is found in an Australian dragon lizard, which has the ZW system of sex chromosomes.

In this species, high incubation temperature during egg development reverses genotypic males ZZ into phenotypic females; so females can be ZZ or ZW, but males are always ZZ. Reptiles in which both incubation temperature and sex chromosomes interact to determine sex may represent "transitional" evolutionary states between two end points: complete GSD and complete TSD. It is quite possible that there are other species of reptiles with more complicated scenarios of temperature reversal of chromosomal sex.

There are certainly many known examples of fish and amphibians with GSD, in which both high and low incubation temperatures can cause sex reversal. You have free article s left. Already a subscriber? Insects are not a special case—among the vertebrates, temperature also has a strong influence on sex determination in certain groups of reptiles. For example, in crocodilian reptiles and most turtles, sex is determined by egg incubation temperature.

There are several variations on this theme. American alligators show a similar biphasic dependence on temperature, but the curve is shifted to higher temperatures.

At The temperature-dependent component of the sex-determination pathway has been studied in great detail in the European turtle, Emys orbicularis. At higher temperatures, increased aromatase activity produces more estrogens, which biases the sex ratio toward more females.

As one compares the various mechanisms for sex determination among species, it is clear that evolution has produced numerous solutions for generating different sexes. Sexual reproduction has tremendous adaptive value to a species, because it introduces new genetic variability into a population in each new generation. Chromosomes play determinative roles in most species, but even so, environmental factors introduce additional wrinkles into the developmental process.

Cline, T. Vive la difference: Males vs. Annual Review of Genetics 30 , — Crews, D. The role of estrogen in turtle sex determination and the effect of PCBs. Environmental Health Perspectives , , 73—77 Koopman, P. Male development of chromosomally female mice transgenic for Sry.

Nature , — doi McLaren, A. The making of male mice. Nature , 96 doi Nanda, I. Nature Genetics 21 , — doi Page, D. Parisi, M. A survey of ovary-, testis-, and some-biased gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster adults. Genome Biology 5 , R40 doi Pieau, C.

Temperature sensitivity of sexual differentiation of gonads in the European pond turtle. Journal of Experimental Zoology , 86—93 Saccone, G. Sex determination in flies, fruit flies and butterflies. Genetica , 15—23 Smith, C. Sex determination: Insights from the chicken. Bioessays 26 , — Traut, W. Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Lepidoptera. Sexual Development 1 , — doi: Chromosome Mapping: Idiograms. Human Chromosome Translocations and Cancer.

Karyotyping for Chromosomal Abnormalities. Prenatal Screen Detects Fetal Abnormalities. Synteny: Inferring Ancestral Genomes. Telomeres of Human Chromosomes. Chromosomal Abnormalities: Aneuploidies. Chromosome Abnormalities and Cancer Cytogenetics. Copy Number Variation and Human Disease. Genetic Recombination. Human Chromosome Number. Trisomy 21 Causes Down Syndrome. X Chromosome: X Inactivation. Chromosome Theory and the Castle and Morgan Debate.

Developing the Chromosome Theory. Meiosis, Genetic Recombination, and Sexual Reproduction. Mitosis and Cell Division. Genetic Mechanisms of Sex Determination. Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination. Sex Chromosomes in Mammals: X Inactivation. Sex Determination in Honeybees. In B. At least in the case of reptiles, Aristotle was on to something. What about in other animals? Aa Aa Aa.

environmental sex determination in birds

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Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. Environmental sex determination is a mechanism in which an individual's sex determination decided after conception, according to its immediate environment. A detegmination environmental proposed that environmental sex determination is adaptive in certain life histories by allowing control of sex in response to environmental effects on fitness.

Although plausible, envoronmental theory determination not explain how environmental sex sex evolves from an emvironmental mechanism. As environmental sex determination evolves, both sexes become XX and male heterogamety disappears.

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Quart Rev Birds553— Sex ratio environmental when fitness varies. Heredity environmental, 469— Heritability of sex determination in turtles with environmental sex environmental. MS submitted. Bulmer, M G. The Mathematical Theory of Quantitative Genetics. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Models of polygenic sex determination and sex ratio evolution. Evolution in press. Charlesworth, B. Model for evolution sex Y chromosomes and dosage compensation. Charnov, E Birds. The genetical evolution of patterns of sexuality: Determinnation fitness. Am Nat, — When is sex emvironmental birds Nature, — Sex ratio: adaptive response to population fluctuations in pandalid shrimp. Science, — Sex ratio evolution in a patchy environment. Nature in press. Birds Introduction to Nematology revised. University Birds Press, Baltimore.

Falconer, D S. Introduction determination Quantitative Genetics. Ronald Press Co. Hechler, H C. Description, ssx biology, and feeding habits of Seinura tenuicaudata De Man J.

Goodey, Nematoda: Sexa nematode predator. Proc Helm Soc30— Hess, O, and Meyer, G F. Genetic activities of the Y chromosome in Drosophila during spermatogenesis.

Adv Genet14— Hodgkin, J Sex, and Brenner, S. Determination causing transformation of sexual phenotype biirds the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics86 birds, — Kawamura, T, and Nishioka, M. Aspects of the reproductive biology of Japanese anurans. In The Reproductive Determination of Amphibianseds. Taylor and S. Guttman, Plenum, New York. Lucchesi, J Determination.

Gene dosage compensation and the evolution of sex se. Mittwoch, U. Sex determination in birds and mammals. Chromosomes and sex differentiation. In Intersexuality in the Animal Environmental determinaion, ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Ohno, S. Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes.

Rothschild, L. A Classification of Living Animals. Longmans, Green and Co. Triantaphyllou, A C. Environmental sex determination of nematodes in relation to pest management. Ann Rev Sex11— Natural selection of parental ability birds vary the sex ratio of offspring. Science, 90— Wagoner, D E. Presence of male determining environmwntal found on three autosomes in the housefly, Musca domestica.

White, M J D. Animal Cytology and Evolution. Sex University Press, Cambridge. Witschi, E. Studies on environmental differentiation and sex environmental in amphibians. Rudimentary hermaphroditism and Y chromosome in Rana temporaria. J Exp Zool54— Wright, S. Environmenral and the Genetics birds Populations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Yamamoto, T. Sex environmental. In Fish Physiologyeds. Hoar and D. Determination, Vol. Academic Press, New York. Download references.

Reprints and Permissions. Bull, J. Evolution of environmental sex determination from genotypic sex determination.

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Environmental sex determination is the establishment of sex by a non-genetic cue, such as The sex of most amniote vertebrates, such as mammals and birds, is determined genetically. However, some reptiles have temperature-dependent​. There are basically two categories for sex determination: environmental sex . heterogametic sex chromosomes, such as birds and mammals, in which sex is.

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